Color blindness (color blindness) is a disease that primarily affects men. It belongs to the group of recessively inherited birth defects in association with the X chromosome, which determines its relationship to sex. In some cases, color blindness may be an acquired disease, that is, associated with the influence of various external factors on the nervous system and the organ of vision.
What is color blindness?
Color blindness is a fairly complex disorder that makes it difficult or impossible to recognize colors correctly. The world can be seen in color thanks to the proper functioning of the eye, which by recording the received images “blending” the primary colors with each other. Primary colors include red, blue and green. This means that in healthy people we are dealing with trichromatic vision, which is possible after the sight organ has reached the appropriate maturity.
At the beginning of their lives, babies 4-5 weeks old, they see a little differently, registering only black and white. Then red, green, and yellow are added to the color palette that the infant sees. A 16-week-old baby starts to see blue. Around the child’s first birthday, eyesight is almost fully mature, but there are still some worrisome changes to, among other things, visual perception.
In people with color blindness, the process of color vision is significantly disturbed. A color photographer cannot see primary colors, so he sees the world around him in a completely different way. There are several types of color blindness associated with damage to light-sensitive visual receptors, ie. suppositories; It is located in the retina and is responsible for seeing a certain primary color. Each form of the disease causes the eyes to see basic colors a little differently. Color blindness is often a congenital defect that appears in preschool or early school age, and is associated with difficulties in color recognition.
Color blindness in its most advanced form, i.e. chromatic acuity, causes a complete lack of color vision. A person with this disorder sees the world in shades of gray and suffers from visual disturbances that accompany color blindness, ie. photosensitivity;
Who inherits color blindness?
Congenital color blindness is inherited in a recessive manner linked to the X chromosome, which means that this defect mostly affects males. Women also get sick, but they often carry color blindness, passing the disease on to their sons. This is for a simple reason. A man has only one X chromosome, which directly translates to a greater susceptibility to the disease. A woman has two X chromosomes, so both the mother and father must be carriers of the disease in order to develop color blindness.
Color blindness – causes
As mentioned earlier, the cause of congenital color blindness is a genetic mutation that causes the absence or impairment of a certain type of receptor (suppositories) responsible for recognizing a particular color. However, it may happen that color blindness is caused by external factors, such as an injury. Acquired color blindness is very rare and is associated, among other things with:
- eye injuries,
- taking certain medications and using steroids,
- nervous system disorders,
- Diseases of the retina, in which there are receptors responsible for color vision.
Acquired color blindness is mainly limited to the less stressful disturbances in color recognition that were completely visible. Depending on the type of damage and the causes of the disorders, ophthalmic therapy can be used. In the case of congenital color blindness, there is still no effective treatment that would allow to restore the efficiency of the eye.
Types of color blindness
Color blindness can take many forms. Achromatopsy is the complete absence or significant deficiency of all types of retinal suppositories. Color blindness can also lead to the complete absence of one of the types of cones, and therefore the color responsible for vision is not recognized. This pathology may also be associated with a reduced sensitivity of suppositories to recognition of a particular color, which leads to blurring of visible colors and reducing their saturation.
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