It has long been known that cigarette smoking significantly increases the risk of lung cancer. Smokers make up the majority of lung cancer patients. But this does not mean that all “addicts” get cancer. Why does not every smoker get lung cancer? What are the diseases associated with smoking? Check out what’s worth knowing.
- How does cigarette smoking affect the development of lung cancer?
- Do all smokers get lung cancer?
- Does quitting smoking prevent lung cancer?
Lung cancer is called “smoker’s cancer”. Although anyone can develop this type of cancer, the process of cancer formation in the vast majority of patients has been associated with smoking. After all, not every smoker gets lung cancer. So what are the risks of getting this cancer? Is quitting smoking enough to stay safe? We explain what is worth knowing.
How does cigarette smoking affect the development of lung cancer?
Tobacco smoke contains about 4000 toxic substances, many of which have been shown to have carcinogenic (carcinogenic) effects. Substances in cigarettes can act by active particles formed during metabolism in cells of the bronchial mucosa or by direct binding to receptors and activating proteins that regulate processes such as apoptosis (cell death) or angiogenesis (angiogenesis). . The irritating effect of tobacco smoke, increased susceptibility to respiratory infections and a weakening of local defensive reactions create better conditions for the development of cancer.
Do all smokers get lung cancer?
The proportion of smokers among lung cancer patients is about 80-90%. The risk of developing the disease is believed to increase with the number of cigarettes smoked and the duration of smoking, expressed in so-called packing years.
Ten pack years – smoking a pack a day for at least 10 years – is thought to be the limit at which significant health outcomes are likely to exceed.
Some smokers are more sensitive to the components of tobacco smoke and have a higher risk of developing lung cancer than others. This is likely due to altered forms (polymorphisms) of genes that are important for basic cell functions, such as the TP53 or MDM2 gene, xenobiotic metabolism genes, and repair (DNA repair) genes.
Does quitting smoking prevent lung cancer?
Smoking cessation is believed to “cure” the pre-cancerous lesions caused by smoking (the effect of tobacco smoke). On the other hand, persistent addiction leads to other stages of carcinogenesis – the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic disorders, stimulation of angiogenesis, local tumor development (infiltration), and finally the formation of metastases.
However, tobacco smokers need to know that this addiction shortens the life of even those who have never had cancer. Chronic respiratory diseases are associated with inhalation of tobacco smoke. There are cardiotoxic substances in tobacco smoke. It is estimated that approximately 30% of all cases of myocardial infarction and heart disease are associated with smoking, which accelerates the aging of the coronary arteries of the heart. It is estimated that both the bronchial tree and the blood vessels of smokers age twice as fast as non-smokers.
Statistically, heavy cigarette smoking shortens lifespan by 10 to 20 years.
Source: “Smoking and Lung Cancer” by Ewa Jasim, Amelia Zimanowska and Alija Siminska from the Department of Allergology at the Medical University of Gdask and Jacek Jasim from the Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy at the Medical University of Gdask (magazines. viamedica.pl)
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