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NASA. Astronauts return to the moon. On Monday, the launch of the Artemis I . mission

NASA.  Astronauts return to the moon.  On Monday, the launch of the Artemis I . mission

It is planned to start from Cape Canaveral in Florida after 14.33 Poland time. Then the two-hour startup window begins. Artemis It is the name of the American spaceflight program they are carrying out NASAprivate companies as well as international partners, incl. European Space Agency (European Space Agency). The goal of the program is to return people to the moon. The project started at the end of 2017.

Astronauts first walked on the moon in 1969 and last time in 1972. Since then, they’ve only landed on the moon drone investigations. In total, only 12 people walked the Silver Globe. After about 50 years, the US space agency wants it Resume manned exploration of the moon and even establish a base there.

Artemis I. It is the first in a series of increasingly complex lunar exploration missions. The goal of this first flight will be to put the Orion spacecraft into action. There will be no astronauts in itThe flight will be entirely unmanned, although as part of the tests a doll called Campos will sit in the commander’s seat (named after the engineer Arturo Campos, who made a huge contribution to the Apollo mission and landing people on the moon), “supported” by two other dolls. – Helga and Zohar.

The Orion spacecraft will fly around the moon, and the capsule will approach the surface about 100 kilometers. After that, it is scheduled to return to Earth. The mission is scheduled to begin on August 29, 2022 and last several weeks.

next mission Artemis II will run. Four astronauts will fly over the moon at an altitude of 8,900 km above the surface. This should happen in 2024. Then, in 2025, there will be a surface landing near the south pole of the Moon (two astronauts will remain in orbit, two will land and spend about a week there).

Artemis software contains many important technical components. Space ship Orion They will be used to transport astronauts from Earth into orbit around the Moon. Rocket space launch system The SLS will be used to transport astronauts and payloads to the Moon. The SLS will be the most powerful missile in the world. There will also be ground systems at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. There are also plans to build the Gateway space station in lunar orbit. It will be used to transport astronauts from orbit to the surface of the moon and back human landing system (HLS), a different type of spacecraft built by SpaceX on behalf of NASA. A base for astronauts will also be built on the Moon: Artemis Base Camp.

December 9, 2020 NASA Announced a list of 18 astronauts selected to participate in the project Artemis.

The Artemis program also includes Artemis agreements, that is, an agreement with space agencies in individual countries. This agreement proposes general and applicable civil rules and a model for international cooperation in space, particularly in exploration the moonAnd later also Mars. The Artemis Accords refer to the 1967 Outer Space Treaty, to which 112 countries are now adherents, along with other agreements United nations.

Poland is among about 20 countries that have signed the agreement. This happened on October 26, 2021 during From the International Astronautical Congress in Dubai. They signed it Pam Millroy – Former astronaut and current Vice President of NASA and Grzegorz Wrochna Head of the Polish Space Agency.

Participation in Agreements of Artemis It paves the way for more detailed contracts with NASA under the Artemis program. However, it should be noted that Poland already has an opportunity to participate in Artemis by being a member of the European Space Agency (ESA), an important partner of NASA in the Artemis program. The European Space Agency’s agreement with NASA allows the participation of Polish entities. In particular, Polish companies and institutes can participate in European Exploration Envelope Program (E3P), which is directly related to Artemis. The European Space Agency is particularly involved in the construction of elements of the Orion ship and the space station Gate (ESPIRIT and I-HAB modules).

Polish Space Agency It is based on the fact that during the implementation of the Artemis program, our space industry will provide research tools, measurement equipment, robots and controls, and that it will be possible to engage in the beginnings of space mining.

– In a way, it’s hard to overstate the scale of this, historically speaking. This will be the first time since 1967 and the Saturn 5 rocket that NASA is testing a new rocket designed to return people to the Moon (…) In fact, this announced launch surprised us a little. We told ourselves that this would never happen, nothing would work, and this project is damned. But now I think there’s a good chance it will work, and it’s right around the corner – he explains Casey Dreyer, Senior Space Policy Adviser to the Planetary SocietyIt is a leading organization in space exploration.

There were many reasons for skepticism: the program that began in 2011 will be launched almost six years later than originally planned, Accommodates more than 5 billion dollars. In the expert community, the joking abbreviation SLS was developed as “Senate Launch System” and was called Job Maintenance Program for Engineers. NASA. Former high-ranking agency officials, such as former NASA Vice President Laurie Garver, have claimed that it would be much cheaper and more efficient to outsource the project to the private sector and have complained that SLS technology is outdated, for example, unlike SpaceX missiles can be disposed of.

“It’s all true, all the criticism is due,” Dreyer admits. But he adds that this measure has managed to retain tens of thousands of jobs in many parts of the United States, which in turn has given him “political stability” and the support of members of Congress from both parties.

According to Dreyer, Artemis schedule is probably too optimisticBecause each subsequent task will become more and more complex. However, she believes that the participation of many countries and the private sector (SpaceX is building a lunar lander) gives her a good chance of success, despite the huge ambition of the project.

The goal here is to create a permanent human presence outside our planet. Check its shape to maintain our presence on the orb closest to us. Can we create a self-sustaining economy between the Earth and the Moon? – says the expert. As he points out, this is a natural next step after 20 years of operation International Space Station And an important stage before more ambitions, such as exploration Mars.

“Behind Artemis is the idea of ​​our first serious test as a species capable of space travel,” he adds.

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