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Polish sciences. The system needs repair

Polish sciences.  The system needs repair

In terms of the development of science Poland It has made great progress in the last 30 years. Polish scientists are successful, which qualifies them as world leaders, and expenses for this are gradually increasing.

However, some reforms in the scientific evaluation system have transformed quality into quantity. Scientists are now finding it more profitable to publish or produce more scientific discoveries without paying attention to their quality, notes Professor K. Bożena Kamińska-Kaczmarek from the Institute of Experimental Biology deprivation, one of the four winners of this year’s 2021 Polish Science Foundation Prize.

– Polish science is doing well, but in the epidemic, most scientists have recorded huge losses, which they have not been able to work on Universities Nor in laboratories. We are in a hurry and not all of the things we planned have been accomplished. foreign trips They are almost completely suspended, which also means that we cannot share our experimental results – says the professor. Maciej ylicz, President of the Polish Science Foundation.

As it is estimated, Poland has made significant progress in the past 30 years in terms of the development of science. Polish scientists are successful, which qualifies them as world leaders, and expenses for this are gradually increasing. In 2018, they reached 1.21%. PKB, and a year later they increased by as much as PLN 5 billion and it was by far the largest increase since 1989. Last year, the total budget for science, stipulated in the Budget Act, amounted to PLN 31 billion (of which PLN 27 billion came from the state budget and 4 billion PLN from the European budget) and amounted to 11%. y/y increase.

as Eurostat In the 2010-2020 period, Poland recorded an increase in spending on research and development, which is one of the fastest in the European Union – and in this respect it was only ahead of Greece and Belgium. However, the level of these expenditures last year reached 1.4%. GDP – which is still a significantly different result from the EU average of 2.3%. For comparison, leaders – about 3.5 percent. GDP devoted to research and development – there are Belgium and Sweden.

– Over the past 30 years, the Polish flag has changed dramatically. did Scientific Research Committee, which created the seeds for the grant system, and later also the National Research and Development Center and the National Science Center (NCN), that is, the subsequent government agencies that distribute grants to make this science more competitive – says Prof. Message Chili’s. – On the other hand, we have exaggerated a little in the other direction, that is, we believe that the grant system is the only and best way to finance Polish science. Meanwhile, you really need to find a golden mean.

It is estimated that part of the funds allocated to scientific activity should come from stable and long-term funds Funding sourcesAnd some of the grants. Focusing only on the last element means that in order to continue research, scholars must constantly search for new sources of funding, apply for money, settle grants, etc.

– In recent years, there has been a great development in the scientific infrastructure, and grant agencies are allocating funds for large and valuable research. So – if someone has good scientific ideas and shows they can do research – there are many funding paths that can be used. At the moment, in Poland, it is possible to try to conduct research at the highest level, and if something prevents the use of its full potential, it is a completely unregulated system of finance scholars. There is no work ethic that can be expected and will give the best results – says the professor. Bożena Kamińska-Kaczmarek of the Institute of Experimental Biology of the Polish Academy of Sciences.

As he points out, some reforms in the scientific evaluation system have made quality quantitative so that it is now profitable for scientists to publish or produce more scientific discoveries without paying attention to their quality.

– This is the main danger because at the moment Infrastructure Wonderful, and we have always had scholars, especially young ones, very well prepared, well educated, and really committed – says the professor. Bożena Kamińska-Kaczmarek. However, the danger is that the system of scientific evaluation that has been introduced does not encourage outstanding research, nor does it encourage great research. It is not done in one day, great research takes a lot of time, lasts for many years, and requires Too much costIt requires cooperation and people with different expertise and experience. These are not things that can be produced or published several times a year.

There are about 81.5 thousand people in Poland. People who are directly involved in research and development, there are currently about 81.5 thousand of them in the country, of whom 54 thousand have a doctorate, about 21 thousand are qualified doctors, and almost 11,000 researchers in Poland have the title of professor.

This year’s prestigious Shanghai Ranking, which rewards universities with a strong research focus, includes 10 Polish schools, while in last year’s edition there were eight. In contrast, according to the Scimago Journal & Country Rank, which takes into account the number of citations, the best Polish scientific disciplines are astronomy, physical sciences and mathematics.

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