skin cancer, In short, it is a tumor arising from melanocytes – pigment cells located, among other things, in the epidermis or vascular membrane of the eye, which produce and store melanin (a natural pigment). he is The most aggressive type of skin cancer It is the most dangerous cancer in general. It is characterized by: rapid growth rate, dynamic development and frequent metastases. It is believed that the main cause of skin cancer is UV exposure.
Melanoma develops on the surface of the skin, so it is easy to notice alarming changes on your own. More than half of melanomas are new changes that appear on the skin, and about 40 percent. They are formed on the basis of an already existing pigmented lesion (eg birthmarks).
Helpful in diagnosing skin cancer ABCDE principle. Each letter reflects its different characteristic. A is asymmetry, B – jagged edges, C – red, black, non-uniform color of the lesion, D – large size, E – twist. We write more about the ABCDE principle over here.
The earlier neoplastic changes are detected, the higher the chances of recovery. Doctors confirm this Early detection of skin cancer Gives up to 90 percent. Chances of a full recovery.
basal cell carcinoma It is the most common form of skin cancer. It represents 75-80 percent. All skin cancer diagnoses. It develops as a result of abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells in the basal layer of the epidermis – the deeper layer of the epidermis, in which new cells (keratinocytes) are formed. It is believed that much of the damage to DNA in the cells of the basal layer is caused by the influence of ultraviolet radiation.
Basal cell carcinoma usually develops on parts of the body that have been exposed to sunlight, especially the head and neck. occurs in the form of A growing or non-healing wound.
The skin lesion in basal cell carcinoma usually takes the form of:
- Shiny bump of skin colorIt is transparent. On fair skin it may look pearly white or pink, and on dark skin it may be brown or black shiny nodules. Small blood vessels may be visible. It can bleed and grow.
- Lesions are brown, black, blue or dark-spotted lesions with slightly raised transparent borders;
- Flat, scaly “patches” with a raised edge that can change their size;
- A scarring, waxy white lesion without clearly defined boundaries.
However, basal cell carcinomas can look very different. Any disturbing change of the skin should be consulted with a specialist.
Basal cell carcinoma usually grows very slowly. It rarely spreads beyond its original location. With early detection and treatment, it causes minimal damage. Unfortunately, It often returns, even with successful treatment.
squamous cell carcinoma (squamous cell carcinoma) It is less common than basal cell carcinoma. It develops in the squamous cells of the skin (however, it is worth knowing that squamous cells are also found in other places of the body). As mentioned above – most cases are caused by long-term exposure to ultraviolet rays.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin most often occurs on skin exposed to sunlight – The scalp, the back of the hands, the ears, or the mouthBut it can occur anywhere on the body, including the mouth, the soles of the feet, and the genitals.
Symptoms of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin Probably:
- compressed, red cut,
- red scaly spot,
- Pain or a raised area on an old scar or sore
- A rough, scaly patch on the lip that can develop into an open wound
- A red wound or a rough spot in the mouth
- A raised red spot or scaly papillary lesion on the genitals.
Left untreated, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin can destroy nearby healthy tissue, spread to lymph nodes or other organs, and can be fatal, although these cases are rare.
Merkel cell carcinoma (Merkel cells are sensory receptor cells found in the basal layer of the epidermis) This is a rare type of rare neuroendocrine carcinoma. In the United States, there are about two thousand. cases per year. Diagnosis is about 30 times less frequent than in the case of melanoma. The most common site for this tumor is The skin of the head and neck, then the skin of the upper extremities, then the skin of the lower extremities. The etiology of this tumor is unknown, but ultraviolet radiation and immunosuppression play a role in causing it.
Merkel cell carcinoma usually grows on sun-exposed skin such as Coherent, painless, flesh-colored to a red-purple mass. A small, primary tumor tends to grow rapidly over a period of weeks or months. It can spread to other areas of the skin, lymph nodes, or elsewhere, including the liver, bones, lungs, and brain.
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